The accusative form of adjectives and numerals
Hungarian meals and ingredients
Fruits vegetables and colours
Pages 87-91in the printed book
This unit focuses more on the vocabulary and the cultural background of Hungarian meals. The grammar component only expands the use of the accusative suffix a little bit.
In the following dialogue Judit and Kinga are in the shop and they talk to the shop assistant. For some reason, the shop assistant keeps asking back to clarify what kind of apples the girls want.
Judit – Jó napot kívánok!
Judit – Good morning.
Note: Mennyibe kerül? is used to find out the price of one specific item while Mennyit fizetek? (How much do I owe you? or literally How much do I pay?) is used to ask about the total price one has to pay.
The following charts show you how the accusative suffix is added to adjectives and numbers.
The accusative form of adjectives and numerals
a) Adjectives may function as nouns and thus can be the grammatical objects of verbs:
(Egy pirosat kérek. – A red one, please., Mindig drágát veszek, nem olcsót. – I always buy an expensive one, not a cheap one.). When functioning as grammatical objects the accusative ending has to be added to the adjective.
The rules that determine which variation of the accusative suffix (-t/-ot/-at/-et/-öt) should be added to the stem are basically the same as in the case of nouns. However, there are two major differences:
1) While the accusative -t is added to the nouns without a linking vowel when they end in -s, -sz or -z , in case of adjectives that end in -s, -sz or -z the accusative -t is added to the word with a linking vowel (magas® magasat – tall, hangos ® hangosat – loud, rossz ® rosszat – bad/broken, okos ® okosat – clever, unalamas ® unalamasat – boring).
2) As explained in the previous unit, there are a number of nouns that take the less common -at ending but the majority of back vowel nouns take -ot. Adjectives are different because the majority of the back vowel adjectives take -at and there are just a few with the -ot (nagy ® nagyot – big) ending.
b) Numerals may also get accusative suffixes when used as nouns (Négyet kérek. – I would like four, please.)
It is more more useful to memorise the accusative forms rather than learn the rules as many of them have irregular forms.
c) Question words also take the accusative ending. (Milyen? – What kind of? / What is it like?, Ki? – Who?, Mi? – What?, Hány? – How many?, Mennyi? – How much?)
Milyen almát kér? (What kind of apple would you like?)
As we have seen it in this unit and previous ones, two question words are used to ask about the number or the quantity.
Hány? is used with countable nouns so it corresponds to English How many?
Mennyi? is mainly used with uncountable nouns so it is similar to English How much?
It must be noticed that Mennyi? may be used with uncountable nouns too.
Hány óra van? (What is the time?)
As you may observe bor (wine), pénz (money) or idő (time) are uncountable while üveg bor (bottle of wine), forint and óra (hour) are countable.
Meals, ingredients, fruits and some important verbs
Page 91 in the printed book
Some important ingredients and meals
hagyma (onion), fokhagyma (garlic), tej (milk), liszt (flour), paradicsom (tomato), hal (fish), só (salt), cukor (sugar), olaj (oil), kolbász (sausage)
hús (meat) In Hungarian there are no specific words for the different types of meat, it’s just the name of the animal plus meat: cow meet or pig meet).
csirkehús (chicken meat)
disznóhús or sertéshús (pork) Disznó means pig, while sertés sounds more sophisticated. In restaurants you will find sertéshús on the menu.
krumpli and burgonya are exactly the same, they mean potato. Krumpli is often used in spoken Hungarian but restaurants always put burgonya on the menu.
tejföl is sour cream and it’s very popular in Hungary. Usually it is not eaten by itself like yogurt but it’s added to meals during cooking or as topping.
túró is an important ingredient of several Hungarian meals. It is often translated into English as cottage cheese or quark but these are not exactly the same. The flavourless túró is usually made with cow milk and it’s used both in savory and sweet meals. When it’s used for filling the palacsinta (crepes) it has to be sweetened. In many countries it’s difficult or almost impossible to find proper túró but it’s very well known in Eastern Europe (it’s called
sveži sir in Croatian or творог in Russian).
paprika is translated as pepper and it may refer to the vegetable or the dried and ground spice made from that. The paprika spice is widely used in Hungarian meals.
Some typical Hungarian meals
palacsinta – It is usually translated as pencakes but it’s rather crepes. For filling you can use jam, grated wallnuts or ground poppy seeds with sugar (or nowadays Nutella but) etc. A very popular filling for túrós palacsinta is prepared from túró, tejföl, sugar, and a little grated lemon zest. You have no idea how good it tastes.
gulyásleves – It is known in many countries as goulash but it is not exactly the same. Goulash is usually a stew but the real Hungarian gulyás is a soup. The ingredients include meat (beef or pork), onion,
halászlé – It’s a fish soup prepared with lots of paprika and onion. Two towns are well known in Hungary for their halászlé: Baja and Szeged. The ingredients of the two types are basically the same but there is a difference in the preparation. Also, the fishsoup of Baja is served with noodles. I know I’m not supposed to say this but I think Hungarian fish soup is terrible. Don’t tell anyone, please.
lecsó – Lecsó is a vegetable stew based on onions, tomatoes and peppers. It’s similar to the French ratatoille. Every Hungarian family has a special recipe for the best lecsó so there are several variations. You may add sausage and/ or eggs for example.
csirkepörkölt – All meals called pörkölt are prepared the same way. The onion is fried on oil until it turns translucent. Than add chopped peppers, tomatoes. Add the meat and the paprika spice after a few minutes and cook it with some water. Pörkölt may be prepared from csirke (chicken), marha (beef) or sertés (pork) and the different types of meet are usually not mixed. Traditionally they used lard instead of oil. Gombapörkölt (mushroom stew) is also delicious and vegetarians will also like it. It is served with mashed potatoes or noodles.
rántott hús – If something is rántott (breaded and fried), it means that it was put into flour, eggs and breadcrumbs and fried in oil. Various types of meat as well as karfiol (cauliflower), gomba (mushrooms) and even slices of cheese may be prepared this way. Rántott hús may be fried chicken, pork or beef.
When you prepare food you can use the following verbs:
főz – cook (when you cook something in water, or when you prepare a meal like lunch or dinner in general)
süt – fry, grill, roast, bake
csinál – make
készít – prepare
Ma Kati főz, nem én. (Kati cooks today, not me.)
cseresznye (cherry), körte (pear), alma (apple), sárgabarack (apricot), őszibarack (peach), görögdinnye (water melon), sárgadinnye (cantaloupe), meggy (sour cherry), banán (banana), szilva (plum), szőlő (grapes), eper (Strawberry), málna (raspberry), dió (walnut), mogyoró (peanut / hazelnut), citrom (lemon), narancs (orange)
piros (red), sárga (yellow), kék (blue), zöld (green), fekete (black), fehér (white), barna (brown), szürke (grey), rózsaszín (pink)